Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in educational settings. The law applied to any educational institution that received federal funding. This lesson has students learn about what Title IX does and explore its impact on gender equality today.
On July 2, 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act into law. Originally proposed by President Kennedy in 1963, this landmark piece of legislation made discrimination based on race, religion, sex or national origin illegal. Additionally, the Civil Rights Act ended the practice of unequal voter requirements based on race or sex and ended racial segregation in schools. The Share My Lesson team has curated a collection of free lesson plans, activities, and classroom materials for educators to use in teaching students about the Civil Rights Act.
Congress and the courts have applied the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause to many aspects of public life over the past 150 years. In this activity, students will explore the evolution of the 14th Amendment through the lens of Title IX, which prohibits institutions that receive federal funding from excluding students from participating in educational and athletic programs on the basis of sex. The Supreme Court’s first Title IX case, Grove City College v. Bell, also demonstrates how each of the three branches exercises its authority.
Does Title IX allow suits for retaliation for complaints about unlawful sex discrimination? This case summary shows how the Supreme Court answered that question in 2005.
Does the 14th Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause prohibit California from defining marriage as the union of one man and one woman? This case summary shows how the Supreme Court answered that question in 2013.
Does a Texas law that criminalizes sexual intimacy by same-sex couples violate the Fourteenth Amendment? This case summary shows how the Supreme Court answered that question in 2003.