Wyoming v. Houghton (1999)

May police officers, with probable cause to search a car, inspect personal items belonging to its passengers without violating the Fourth Amendment? This case summary shows how the Supreme Court answered this question in 1999.

  • Resource Type: Research (Digests of Primary Sources)
  • Subject: Judicial Branch/Supreme Court
  • Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12

Arizona v. Gant (2009)

What must police officers demonstrate when arresting the owner of a vehicle in order to conduct a search of the vehicle without a warrant? This case summary shows how the Supreme Court answered this question in 2009.

  • Resource Type: Lesson Plans, Modules (Teaching Unit)
  • Subject: Judicial Branch/Supreme Court
  • Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12

Illinois v. Caballes (2005)

Does the Fourth Amendment’s requirement of “reasonable, articulable suspicion” for a search apply to a drug detection dog sniff? This case summary shows how the Supreme Court answered that question in 2005.

  • Resource Type: Research (Digests of Primary Sources)
  • Subject: Judicial Branch/Supreme Court
  • Grades: 9, 10, 11, 12